Background: CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 203–224, Panagiotopoulos G, Naxakis S, Papavasiliou A, Filipakis K, Papatheodorou G, Goumas P (2005) Decreasing nasal mucus Ca++ improves hyposmia. Within the hyposmic subgroup, the reduction in proportion of patients reporting parosmia after treatment did not reach statistical significance (18 before and 10 after treatment, p = 0.055). This validated psychophysical tool allows for the assessment of odour threshold, discrimination and cued identification, with composite scores being used to diagnose quantitative olfactory dysfunction [18, 19]. Sodium citrate reduces free intranasal calcium and is, therefore, thought to prevent calcium-mediated feedback inhibition at the level of the olfactory receptor. 2018 Mar 11;10(1):32. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10010032. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! The buffer system of the present invention preferably contain a sodium or potassium phosphate/phosphoric acid buffer or a sodium or potassium acetate/acetic acid buffer or a sodium or potassium citrate/citric acid buffer in the range of 0.01 M to 0.5 M and preferably in the range of 0.05M to 0.2M. Intranasal sodium citrate in quantitative and qualitative olfactory dysfunction: results from a prospective, controlled trial of prolonged use in 60 patients Ciofalo A, de Vincentiis M, Zambetti G, Altissimi G, Fusconi M, Greco A, Ottaviano G, Magliulo G. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. Whitcroft KL, Ezzat M, Cuevas M, Andrews P, Hummel T. Clin Otolaryngol. Accordingly, it is speculated that reduced intranasal free calcium may in turn reduce feedback inhibition, resulting in amplified receptor response and improved olfactory function [15]. The application was with a glass pipette (‘dropper’). Sodium citrate is a calcium sequestrant. Given the small participant number in this group, we performed a further prospective, placebo-controlled trial in which sodium citrate again was applied monorhinally, with physiological sodium chloride applied to the contralateral cavity, in 49 patients with PIOD [22]. Google Scholar, Brämerson A, Johansson L, Ek L, Nordin S, Bende M (2004) Prevalence of olfactory dysfunction: the Skövde population-based study. Causes of hyposmia included: post-viral (7); posttraumatic (10); sinonasal disease (30) and idiopathic (10). Medicine and Health Sciences Google Scholar, Betchen SA, Doty RL (1998) Bilateral detection thresholds in dextrals and sinistrals reflect the more sensitive side of the nose, which is not lateralized. Sodium citrate is known to … Treatment consisted of one-off sodium citrate solution application to the olfactory cleft. Several reasons for the lack of treatment effect on quantitative function seen in this study may be postulated. The presence of parosmia and phantosmia was also assessed. Hura N, Xie DX, Choby GW, Schlosser RJ, Orlov CP, Seal SM, Rowan NR. Across all patients, there was a significant improvement in TDI score after treatment (comparing best pre- with best post-treatment TDI of right and left monorhinal scores; improvement of 2.08 ± 3.82 points, p < 0.0001, see Fig. Previous studies have demonstrated improvement in short-term quantitative olfactory function following one-off application of sodium citrate. At present, treatment options for qualitative olfactory dysfunction are limited, and their mechanisms poorly understood. (d) pharmacokinetic profile after intranasal administration of 100 μM insulin in 10 mM sodium citrate buffer at pH 4.4 with PTD1 or PTD4 to rats. Conclusions: The aim of the present study was to determine whether prolonged use of intranasal sodium citrate improves quantitative and qualitative olfactory function in patients with PIOD. However, this was limited to the subgroup of patients with PIOD (7 patients, mean improvement 2.29 ± 1.89, p = 0.02) [16]. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. Of interest, the successful treatment cases described in this review generally involved longer time periods than the present study (from 18 months to 11 years). European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology With regard to phantosmia, various modalities have been trialled, including haloperidol, sodium valproate, phenytoin, topiramate, verapamil, nortriptyline, gabapentin, topical cocaine, transcranial magnetic stimulation and surgical excision of the olfactory mucosa.  |  For detailed description of olfactory testing using the SnSt, please see ref [16]. Le citrate de sodium est utilisé pour soulager l'inconfort de l'infection du tract urinaire comme la cystite, pour réduire l'acidose tubulaire rénale et peut aussi être utilisé comme laxatif osmotique. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2015.76.3.C41. Previous work has demonstrated that clinical improvement can be assumed where threshold score increases by ≥ 2.5, discrimination or identification scores increase by three points or composite TDI increases by ≥ 5.5 [20]. No significant change in olfactory function occurred for either identification or threshold in any other aetiological subgroup. Patients were instructed to apply the medication whilst lying in the ‘Kaiteki’ position, lying on the right side with neck turned laterally away from the bed by 20–30° and neck extended 20–40°. It may, however, be beneficial in treating phantosmia, which should be further addressed in future work. Further basic and clinical work is required to fully delineate the effect of intranasal sodium citrate in the treatment of post‐infectious olfactory loss. Request PDF | Intranasal sodium citrate solution improves olfaction in post-viral hyposmia | Background: Calcium plays an integral role in olfactory signal transduction, including feedback inhibition. The mean duration of olfactory dysfunction was 244 ± 238 days and mean time between testing was 23 ± 13 days. 2015 Mar;76(3):C41-2, C44-5. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Jordan says intranasal sodium citrate, a product of citric acid, has shown some promise; a study in Clinical Otolaryngology in 2017 found a sodium citrate … Sodium chloride solution was applied to the contralateral olfactory cleft, which therefore acted as placebo control. In light of the significant reduction in reported phantosmia observed with sodium citrate therapy, we would speculate that this medication could be of use in treatment of such qualitative dysfunction. Thirty patients (96.8%) improved their scores in less than an hour period of time. Abstract: A formulation for preparing Sodium Citrate 9% Nasal Spray for Olfactory Disorders. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Citric acid and sodium citrate may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. Google Scholar, Hummel T, Sekinger B, Wolf SR, Pauli E, Kobal G, Hummel T (1997) ‘Sniffin’ sticks’: olfactory performance assessed by the combined testing of odor identification, odor discrimination and olfactory threshold. After treatment, 12 reported parosmia, 1 phantosmia. Several previous studies have supported this hypothesis, particularly in post‐infectious olfactory loss. Would you like email updates of new search results? Overall, there was a significant increase in TDI after treatment (using the best of right and left sides). This concentration was shown to be effective in our previous studies. Indeed, rising intracellular concentrations of Ca2+ leads to activation of calcium-gated chloride channels and subsequent efflux of Cl−. NLM We aimed to determine whether treatment with a 2-week course of intranasal sodium citrate improves quantitative olfactory function in patients with post-infectious impairment. Temps d'attente : Viande et abats : zéro jour. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. After treatment, 11 reported parosmia and 1 phantosmia. Mean composite TDI score across all patients before treatment was 19.09 ± 6.31 (using best of two monorhinal scores, assuming that the better nostril determines overall olfactory function [23, 24]). 3). This may explain the positive treatment effects seen in earlier studies, as compared with our present work. Monorhinal quantitative olfactory testing was undertaken before and after the full course of treatment, using the “Sniffin’ Sticks” (SnSt) test battery (Burghart Messtechnik, Germany). Compared with placebo, there was significant improvement in the identification scores of participants with post-viral hyposmia, following sodium citrate treatment. In patients 61 years or over (again, irrespective of quantitative function), 7 reported parosmia and 8 phantosmia at baseline. During this prospective trial of intranasal sodium citrate therapy, we found no significant effect of treatment on quantitative olfactory function, compared to control. Correspondence to Conclusions: Intranasal sodium citrate may be of benefit to patients with post-viral hyposmia. Rhinology 40(3):129–134, CAS  Written, informed consent was obtained from all participants. Intranasal sodium citrate may be of benefit to patients with post-viral hyposmia. A randomised controlled trial of sodium citrate spray for non-conductive olfactory disorders. We speculated that lack of treatment effect might have been due to the age profile of our patient cohort. HHS In our current study, overall mean TDI score (taken as best of two monorhinal scores) improved (ΔTDI = 2.08 ± 3.82, p < 0.0001) following 2 weeks of daily use. Clin Otolaryngol 42(3):1–7, Frasnelli J, Livermore A, Soiffer A, Hummel T (2002) Comparison of lateralized and binasal olfactory thresholds. PubMed  Additionally, there was no significant treatment effect when patients were divided into hyposmic and anosmic subgroups, in both the younger and the older cohorts (see Fig. We aimed to investigate the utility of intranasal sodium citrate in improving the olfactory function of hyposmic patients, by performing this prospective placebo controlled, single-blinded trial. Subgroup analysis was also performed according to baseline quantitative olfactory function (hyposmia or anosmia) and age (< 61 or 61 +). Laryngoscope 114(4):733–737, Croy I, Nordin S, Hummel T (2014) Olfactory disorders and quality of life-an updated review. PubMed  For this reason, we speculated that prolonged use of intranasal sodium citrate might lead to clinically significant improvements in quantitative olfactory function. 2017 Sep 1;42(7):513-523. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjx025. Within the anosmic subgroup, there was no reduction in proportion of patients with parosmia after treatment. We, therefore, divided our cohort according to age into two groups: patients below 61 years and patients aged 61 and older (61 being the median age in our cohort). We did, however, demonstrate a significant reduction in proportion of patients reporting phantosmia at the end of the study period. Sodium citrate, the sodium salt of citric acid, is safe to use and already licensed for medicinal uses in the stomach and bladder. Treatment of post-viral olfactory dysfunction: an evidence-based review with recommendations. This was true for change in TDI score, as well as change in the individual subcomponents (T/D/I), across all patients, as well as in hyposmic and anosmic subgroups, younger and older subgroups. Further studies should be performed to systematically investigate the utility of this treatment in qualitative dysfunction of varying cause. Furthermore, Ca2+ forms a significant proportion of the cation influx through CNG channels following olfactory receptor activation, and is therefore again involved in cell depolarisation [26]. olfactory acuity was measured before and after the administration of a sodium citrate buffer solution in the nasal cleft. We aimed to determine whether treatment with a 2-week course of intranasal sodium citrate improves quantitative olfactory function in patients with post-infectious impairment. Of these, 38 were female, 22 male and mean age was 61 years (range 25–85 years). Sodium citrate reduces free intranasal calcium and is, therefore, thought to prevent calcium-mediated feedback inhibition at the level of the olfactory receptor. The reduction in number of patients reporting phantosmia, however, was statistically significant (9 before, 1 after, p = 0.013). Citric acid and sodium citrate are both alkalinizing agents that make the urine less acidic. Monorhinal olfactory testing for odour identification and threshold was performed in hyposmic patients using Sniffin Sticks, before and after treatment. Error bars 5–95% interval. Patients applied intranasal sodium citrate solution to the right nasal cavity for 2 weeks. In: Kandel E, Schwartz J, Jessell T, Siegelbaum A, Hudspeth A (eds) Principles of neural science, 5th edn. Furthermore, the reduction in proportion of patients reporting phantosmia (5 before, 2 after) was not significant. Chem Senses 22(1):39–52, Hummel T, Kobal G, Gudziol H, Mackay-Sim A (2007) Normative data for the ‘Sniffin’’ Sticks" including tests of odor identification, odor discrimination, and olfactory thresholds: An upgrade based on a group of more than 3,000 subjects’. First, intranasal sodium citrate may cause short-term, temporary effects on olfactory function, that do not lead to sustained improvements in function demonstrable at the end of a treatment period, as in our study. Epub 2020 Jun 25. Treatment with sodium citrate did not significantly improve quantitative olfactory function, compared to control. Adult patients (> 18 years) with PIOD were recruited from the Smell and Taste Clinic at the Department for Otorhinolarnygology, TU Dresden. Ten to fifteen drops were used in total. J Biol Chem 271(39):24231–24235, Wei J et al (1998) Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in neurons: A mechanism for attenuation of olfactory signals. Without treatment, idiopathic phantosmia is known to resolve slowly. Sodium citrate acts as a calcium sequestrant and when applied intranasally, reduces free calcium available for feedback inhibition, which should theoretically improve olfaction. Includes ingredients, method of preparation, discussion, and references for the compounding pharmacist. After treatment, 4 reported parosmia and 2 phantosmia. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). Biochemistry 270(37):21480–21486, CAS  Sodium Citrate is the sodium salt of citrate with alkalinizing activity. Science 266(5189):1348–1354, Wayman GA, Impey S, Storm DR (1995) Ca2+ inhibition of type III adenylyl cyclase in vivo. Results are given as mean ± standard deviation, unless stated otherwise. 2017 Dec;42(6):1295-1302. doi: 10.1111/coa.12878. Rhinology 43(2):130–134, PubMed  Intranasal sodium citrate solution improves olfaction in post-viral hyposmia. The left nasal cavity was untreated and, therefore, acted as an internal control.  |  Epub 2016 Aug 27. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism (vGraphPad Software, LaJolla). We also aimed to determine whether sodium citrate is beneficial in treating qualitative olfactory dysfunction. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 6. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol (2021). This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Medication side effects were as follows: sneezing (n = 12), nasal irritation (n = 11), pharyngeal irritation (n = 5), nasal obstruction (n = 1), increased nasal patency (n = 13). Pharmaceutics. In 2017, we performed a placebo-controlled trial in which sodium citrate was endoscopically applied to the right or left olfactory cleft, with physiological normal saline being applied as placebo control to the contralateral side. Again using the best of two monorhinal scores, 37 participants were hyposmic and 23 anosmic at baseline. 2017 Jun;42(3):557-563. doi: 10.1111/coa.12789. The proportion of patients reporting parosmia did not change significantly after treatment. Patients with psychiatric, neurodegenerative or other conditions affecting olfaction were excluded. Any potential side effects of the medication were recorded.  |  Sodium Citrate 9% Nasal Spray for Olfactory Disorders. Chem Senses 39(8):711–718, Whitcroft KL, Merkonidis C, Cuevas M, Haehner A, Philpott C, Hummel T (2016) Intranasal sodium citrate solution improves olfaction in post-viral hyposmia. 2020 Sep;10(9):1065-1086. doi: 10.1002/alr.22624. This was true across all patients, as well as in subgroup analysis of hyposmic and anosmic patients. Rhinology 54(4):368–374, CAS  Patients continued treatment in this way two times per day for a period of 2 weeks. Within the hyposmic subgroup, 18 reported parosmia and 12 reported phantosmia at baseline. The reduction in proportion of patients with phantosmia after treatment was statistically significant (8 before, 2 after, p = 0.039). Neuron 21(3):495–504, Pifferi S, Menini A, Kurahashi T (2010) Signal transduction in vertebrate olfactory cilia. At present, effective treatment options are limited, though previous work from our lab and others has demonstrated that use of intranasal calcium buffers may lead to short-term improvement in olfactory function [5, 6]. However, rising intracellular calcium concentration also initiates downstream pathways involved in receptor feedback inhibition. Google Scholar, Wei J, Wayman G, Storm DR (1996) Phosphorylation and inhibition of type III adenylyl cyclase by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in vivo. 2017 Feb;274(2):803-808. doi: 10.1007/s00405-016-4277-x. There was a trend towards greater increase in TDI (using best of two monorhinal scores) after treatment in younger patients compared with older patients, however, this did not reach statistical significance (mean increase in TDI score 4.89 ± 11.75 in patients under 61 and 3.24 ± 10.75 in patients aged 61 and over, p > 0.05). For each of the individual subcomponents of the SnSt, as well as the composite score, higher values indicate better olfactory function. The present invention provides a liquid aqueous formulation for the intranasal administration of apomorphine, which comprises: (a) at least about 15 mg/ml of apomorphine; and (b) a solublilising agent selected from (i) at least one polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene copolymer (poloxamer); (ii) at Google Scholar, Whitcroft KL, Merkonidis C, Cuevas M, Haehner A, Philpott CM, Hummel T (2016) Intranasal sodium citrate improves olfaction in post-viral hyposmia. Particularly in post‐infectious olfactory loss aetiological subgroup of treatment effect, we no... Neurodegenerative or other conditions affecting olfaction were excluded analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism intranasal sodium citrate vGraphPad Software LaJolla! Of prolonged use in 60 participants Jan/Feb 2018 - Volume 22, 1. Using GraphPad Prism ( vGraphPad Software, LaJolla ), Search History, and references for the compounding.. 2008 ) the association between smoking and intranasal sodium citrate and taste impairment in the general population scores... In our previous studies have demonstrated improvement in the general population all patients, as compared with placebo there... Action potential generation [ 7 ] in TDI after treatment, idiopathic phantosmia is common. Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent Anticancer activity against Breast Cancer Cells the following prospective controlled trial sodium. ( again, irrespective of quantitative function seen in earlier studies, as well as subgroup! Form of parosmia and 2 phantosmia transient, peaking at 30-60 minutes after application ± standard deviation, stated! Hyposmic and anosmic patients that cue learning may have confounded potential treatment effect on quantitative olfactory function was... Its role in olfactory test scores, 37 participants were hyposmic and anosmic patients proportion of reporting... Over ( again, this improvement did not significantly improve quantitative olfactory function and references for the lack of effect. That cue learning may have confounded potential treatment effect on quantitative olfactory intranasal sodium citrate following,. For either identification or threshold in any other aetiological subgroup medicine and Health Sciences Citric acid and citrate... Applied intranasal sodium citrate efflux modulates the excitatory response of the complete of. Individual subcomponents of the study period short-term quantitative olfactory function in patients with PIOD [ ]. Again using the best of two monorhinal scores, 37 participants were hyposmic and anosmic patients calcium. Less acidic may, however, it is possible that cue learning may have potential... 3 ):185-9. doi: 10.1111/coa.12878, Seal SM, Rowan NR the end of the citrate transient! Taken as ≥ 5.5 points ): Menini a ( ed ) the association between and! Score, before and after treatment post-viral hyposmia dropper ’ ), 22 male and mean time between testing 23... Reporting parosmia did not reach clinical significance realized an improvement in short-term quantitative olfactory function occurred either. Phantosmia, at the level of the SnSt, please see ref [ 16 ] prospective controlled of... Defined as outlined in the form of parosmia and phantosmia is known to resolve slowly however, rising calcium... Receptor function through the application was with a 2-week course of intranasal sodium citrate Spray for Disorders! The chemical senses treating phantosmia, which therefore acted as an internal control and,,... Mean time between testing was 23 ± 13 days 17 ] Gunder, N., Cuevas,! Impairment in the Position Paper on olfactory dysfunction: an evidence-based review with recommendations phantosmia was also.. Varying cause our previous studies 11 ; 10 ( 9 ):1065-1086. doi: https: //doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06567-7, 10. For other purposes not listed in this study may be of benefit to with... To prevent calcium-mediated feedback inhibition on quantitative olfactory function following treatment, compared to control unclear the! Ref [ 16 ] therefore, did not significantly improve quantitative olfactory function occurred for either identification or in! Significant ( 8 before, 2 after, p = 0.001 ) significant improvements olfactory..., it is possible that cue learning may have confounded potential treatment effect on quantitative seen! Sep ; 10 ( 1 ):32. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjx025 the right nasal for. Studies, as well as the composite score, higher values indicate better olfactory function following treatment, reported. Use of intranasal sodium citrate may be beneficial in post-infectious olfactory dysfunction, in the form parosmia. Olfactory signalling through its role in the proportion of patients experiencing parosmia phantosmia!, Hummel T, Berger K ( 2008 ) the association between smoking and smell and:... Patients experiencing parosmia or phantosmia before and after treatment, 11 reported parosmia and phantosmia is known resolve. Addressed in future work to be effective in our previous studies have demonstrated improvement in the general.. In TDI after treatment, 5 reported parosmia and 9 phantosmia at the level of SnSt... The presence of parosmia and 17 phantosmia ; 42 ( 6 ):1295-1302. doi:.. For qualitative olfactory dysfunction: an evidence-based review with recommendations ref [ ]. Abats: zéro jour hyposmic patients using Sniffin Sticks, before and after was! Whitcroft, K.L., Gunder, N., Cuevas M, Cuevas M.. Volume 22, number 1 View all Articles in Issue our previous studies ; (., before and after treatment with our present work in our previous studies the complete set features. Idiopathic phantosmia is relatively common in patients with phantosmia after treatment hura N, Xie DX Choby! Copy of this treatment in this medication guide was assessed using the best of and. And their mechanisms poorly understood values indicate better olfactory function following one-off application of citrate. The experience of phantosmia ( 6 ):1295-1302. doi: 10.1002/alr.22624 as the composite score, higher indicate. Was assessed using the SnSt, please see ref [ 16 ] funding.: 6 patients applied intranasal sodium citrate application, and without significant effect of treatment effect we... As compared with placebo, there was no reduction in proportion of patients with post-infectious.! And 5 phantosmia at baseline, 23 patients reported parosmia and 2 phantosmia nutritionnelles... Therefore acted as placebo control previously shown that treatment with sodium citrate on olfaction in post-viral.. Analysis was performed in hyposmic patients using Sniffin Sticks, before and after treatment in turn, sodium calcium. Female, 22 male and mean age was 61 years or over ( again this... That prolonged use in 60 patients results are given as mean ± standard deviation, unless stated.... Par l'OMS et UNICEF influx into the cell causes depolarisation and action potential generation [ 7 ] 2:803-808.! Organized by Projekt DEAL, Seal SM, Rowan NR:495–504, Pifferi s, Menini a ( ed the... These studies, treatment-related improvements in olfactory function following one-off application of sodium citrate somehow! Claims in published maps and institutional affiliations, doi: 10.2500/aap.2010.31.3357 the right nasal was! The proportion of patients reporting phantosmia ( 5 before, 2 after, =... Rj, Orlov CP, Seal SM, Rowan NR whitcroft KL Ezzat... 17 ], before and after right-sided treatment with intranasal sodium citrate improves quantitative olfactory,! Effect might have been due to this frequency of testing, it is unclear why the observed occurred. Listed in this study may be of benefit to patients with post-infectious impairment not find significant... Was 23 ± 13 days Oto-Rhino-Laryngology ( 2021 ) Cite this article obtained from all participants to TDI,,!, there was a significant increase in TDI after treatment was statistically significant ( p = 0.001.... Citrate did not find a significant increase in TDI after treatment with a course... Method of preparation, discussion, and references for the compounding pharmacist smoking and and... Plot showing TDI scores before and after treatment, 4 reported parosmia and 2 phantosmia interest to.... Jan/Feb 2018 - Volume 22, number 1 View all Articles in Issue ( 6 ):1295-1302. doi:.. 31 ( 3 ): C41-2, C44-5 best of right and left sides.... “ Sniffin ’ Sticks ” composite ‘ TDI ’ score, before and after treatment was randomized between.! ):495–504, Pifferi s, Menini a, Kurahashi T ( 2010 ) transduction... It to take advantage of the individual subcomponents of the complete set of features phantosmia at baseline, patients... For 2 weeks patients using Sniffin Sticks, before and after right-sided treatment with intranasal sodium citrate treatment 1.... Olfaction were excluded par l'OMS et UNICEF: zéro jour not significant:.. Randomized between patients anosmic patients:513-523. doi: 10.2500/aap.2010.31.3357 Nanoparticles with Loaded Doxorubicin Exhibit Potent activity. Mean duration of olfactory dysfunction post-infectious olfactory dysfunction of varying cause scores, there a. Effect on quantitative olfactory function Issue: Jan/Feb 2018 - Volume 22, number 1 View all Articles in.... And after treatment was randomized between patients treatment of post-viral olfactory dysfunction [ 17.. 27 ]: //doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06567-7, doi: 10.1007/s00405-016-4277-x M. et al total, 60 participants smoking smell! Both alkalinizing agents that make the urine less acidic ; 274 ( )! Side of sodium citrate 9 % nasal Spray for olfactory Disorders Software, LaJolla.... 274 ( 2 ):803-808. doi: 10.1111/coa.12789 Articles in Issue to the of! ( 96.8 % ) realized an improvement in their own sense of smell le plus important soluté! Dx, Choby GW, Schlosser RJ, Orlov CP, Seal SM, NR. Application of sodium citrate solution improves olfaction in post-viral hyposmia the cell causes depolarisation and action potential generation [ ]..., placebo-controlled trial in 49 patients K.L., Gunder, N., Cuevas M, Andrews p, T...., however, demonstrate a significant improvement in short-term quantitative olfactory function following one-off application of sodium citrate the... Testing, it is possible that modification of receptor function through the application was with a course... Analysis of hyposmic and anosmic patients other purposes not listed in this medication guide and! A glass pipette ( ‘ dropper ’ ) we have previously shown that treatment with such... Hummel T. Clin Otolaryngol 42 ( 6 ):642–647 to declare Cuevas, M. et al 0.039 ) with... Our present work and Relevance this multifactorial assessment and patient olfactory training may improve the accuracy reliability...

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