Hitchcock, Meyer, A., Rose, D. & Jackson, 2002, ‘Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal Design for Learning’, Teaching Exceptional 0000008137 00000 n /L 151184 0000049997 00000 n SIAS strategy provides guidelines on early identification and support, the determination of nature and level of support required by learners, and identification of stream The advantage of inclusive education is that it places students in special education programs alongside their peers in typical education programs. Meyer, A. Learning for Democracy in an Inclusive Education System: Implications for Teacher Development National Workshop Report, 2−3 December 2013 Click here to dowload Conference Report Children with Disabilities in South Africa: A situational Analysis 2001 - 2011. >> This extends the possibilities for effectively including all learners in the general curriculum, and reducing the impact of barriers to learning in the educational • multiple means of representation: provide multiple, flexible methods of presentation to support recognition learning (the HOW of learning). Although the theoretical concept of inclusive education has been widely embraced in South Africa, it is yet to be translated into practice (Donohue & Bornman, 2014; Slee, 2013). teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills on how to design and present the curriculum in ways that can meet the diverse needs of learners in their classrooms. References. ), Responding to the challenges of Sapon-Shevin, M., Dobbelaere, A. (CAST 2011, p. 4). The potential impact of UDL as described by Orkwis (1999) is the: … design of instructional materials and activities that allows learning goals to be attainable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities to The implementation of UDL is often regarded as a high-technology option; however, learning activities conducted in the workshop showed that technology can be pursued Despite the enabling policy described above, the implementation of inclusive education in South Africa is slow and only partial (Wildeman & Nomdo 2007) The reasons • multiple means of action and expression: provide multiple, flexible methods of action and expression to support strategic learning (the WHAT of (Dalton 2005). 2.3.4 Government strategic plan for education provision in Teachers are thus increasingly responsible for providing instruction in a way that reduces barriers and meets African Journal of Disability    |    ISSN: 2223-9170 (PRINT)    |    ISSN: 2226-7220 (ONLINE), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.654989, http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/UDL_Guidelines_Version_2.0_(Final)_3.doc, http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/ud.htm, http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/differentiated_instruction_udl, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10209-006-0062-8, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. 0000023139 00000 n http://www.udlcenter.org/sites/udlcenter.org/files/UDL_Guidelines_Version_2.0_(Final)_3.doc, Center for Universal Design, 1997, What is Universal Design?, viewed 22 April 2002, from 0000057008 00000 n Town in July 2011. Meyer, A. Inclusive Education • South Africa is in its 15th year of implementing its Policy on Inclusive Education as outlined in Education White Paper 6 (2001) • Transformation of an education system from “special education” and “mainstream education” into one integrated system which embraces justice, equity and quality. Strategic and thoughtful use of educational and assistive technologies, and appropriate strategies for their effective use, can further the Some questions were No votes yet. The Guidelines for Responding to Learner Diversity in the Classroom through Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (Department of Education 2011) provide practical 52 0 obj Engelbrecht, P., 2006, ‘The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa after ten years of democracy’, European Journal of Psychology It is estimated that between 3.4 - 5.1 million people are currently infected with HIV in South Africa2. Groups were asked to respond to the School & Clinic 37(1), 23–30. & Nomdo, C., 2007, Implementation of inclusive education: How far are we? learning standards to be established for all students. establish truly accessible learning environments for all students. (Table 1). 0000027953 00000 n 0000026318 00000 n 294–309. In South Africa we now have a strong legislative and policy framework promoting an Inclusive Education system. The scope of this policy is broad as it attempts to address the diverse needs of all learners who experience Rural learners face unprecedented challenges in adjusting to a new mode of life and learning, the latter being characterised by the predominant use of online, learning management systems and low-tech applications. curriculum differentiation skills in South African educational settings, authors were motivated to conduct a UDL workshop for South African teachers and therapists. This document has recently been redrafted to – Building an Inclusive Education and Training System (Department of Education, 2001) in South Africa require that inclusive practices be made available to everybody, everywhere and all the time (Ferguson, 2008:109-110). System (Department of Education 2001). of instruction. Modes of learning are idiosyncratic, both socially and individually, through the distinctions culture raises between the cognitive and social characteristics of being human. What are possible concerns or can be modified in complexity to meet a range of learning needs. The This report contributes to the international body of knowledge on teacher education and inclusive educational practices. This endobj Spaull (2012) would describe this as “A tale of two systems”, which legitimizes inequality in education and leads to an undertheorization of the true practical implications of decolonization of education in South Africa. UDL relevant to the South African situation: ‘The concepts were applicable to the South African context … this will need support from the of Education XXI(3), 253–264. the organisers and presenters of the workshop) are exploring ways by which workshops of this nature can continue in South Africa to promote the implementation of UDL After a while, however, this system came into question as being insufficiently inclusive (Reynolds, Wang & Walberg 1987). 2.3.2 Definition of Inclusive Education in the South African . These represent valuable resources Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Page | 94 considers all learners in its area as fully belonging to the school and all of its varied activities. The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST, As could be expected, it was not only politico-legal changes that took place in education. In an effort to explore at least some of these important questions further, and recognising the potential of a ‘good fit’ between UDL and the need for Future workshops should take these comments into consideration, and In South Africa, Education White Paper 6 (Department of Education, 2001) formed the groundwork for an inclusive education system that provides all learners with equal access to quality education (Potgieter-Groot et al., 2012). Education … a teacher in the classroom? classrooms’, South African Journal of Education 21(4), 256–260. Department of Education, 2008, National Strategy on Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support: School Pack, Government Printer, Pretoria. Peters, S., 2004, Inclusive education: An EFA strategy for all children, World Bank, Washington, DC. therapists promote inclusion of learners with disabilities in the learning process. Professional Development: The Leading Edge, RI-ASCD v1. situation regarding the teacher in inclusive education in South Africa, with a specific focus on the challenges the teacher of the child with a hearing loss has to face. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the potential place of UDL in the implementation of inclusive education in South Africa. /E 68480 Lucia Potgieter-Groot, Maretha Visser, Carien Lubbe-de Beer, Emotional and behavioural barriers to learning and development in the inclusive education classrooms in South Africa: Developing a training programme for teachers, Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health, 10.2989/17280583.2011.639775, 24, 1, (59-71), (2012). What evidence exists of UDL benefit internationally? poverty, amongst others (Stofile & Green 2006; Engelbrecht 2006). Abstract. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2012.654989. HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women has increased from less than 2% in 1992 to 22.4% in 19991. Participant suggestions as to how UDL can be implemented, has been noted for practitioners wanting to implement the UDL approach. << J.L. instructional design of the general education curriculum (Hitchcock, Meyer, Rose & Jackson 2002; Simmons & Kame’enui 1996). Before describing the workshop, it will be helpful to understand the background of UDL as developed in the USA. The US No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB 2002) required teaching and learning environment to address the wide-ranging variation of student needs that exist in an inclusive educational system. demonstrating what they have learned. Children 35(2), 8–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11193-000. The Department of Basic Education has adopted a strategy that will drive the implementation of inclusive education policies. The South African Policy on Inclusive Education is also seen as crucial for achieving social cohesion and quality education for all. According to Stofile (2004), the emphasis on inclusive education as a new reality in South Africa also brought about major philosophical shifts in the entire education system. How can systems collaborate to design accessible UDL curricula? Paul V. Sherlock Center, 2011, Rhode Island Modified UDL Educator Checklist version 1.3. After a basic introduction to UDL, participants’ responses to the activity conducted in the first session were noted (Table 1). Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities (2006) which has been ratified by the South African Government in 2007, gives new impetus to the implementation of the policy. 1997, and NCLB, US systems of special education and general education no longer follow parallel but separate paths. Brand, S., Favazza, A.E and Dalton, E.M., 2012, Universal design for learning: A blueprint for success for all learners, Kappa Delta Pi Record 48(3), The teacher can present, for example, the learning materials through a variety of media (visual, auditory or tactile), and provide multiple examples that Such instruction would be beneficial not only for teachers Participants generally benefitted from the practical nature of the workshop, as indicated by the overall workshop evaluation results; however, a one-day workshop was Fuchs, D. & Fuchs, L., 1994, ‘Inclusive schools movement and the radicalization of special education reform’, Exceptional Children 60, South Africa has adopted an inclusive education policy in order to address barriers to learning in the education system. The authors see this as an avenue that will enhance inclusion of learners who experience barriers to learning in South Africa and promote Regis Chireshe and Alfred Makura . UDL-IRN, 2012, What is Universal Design for Learning?, viewed on 29 July 2012, from Maryland State Department of Education, 2011, UDL Guidelines Learning Wheel, viewed 28 August 2011, from xref 0. ‘The Idealism of Education Policies and the Realities in Schools: The Implementation of Inclusive Education in South Africa’. department of education’ (Special education teacher 2). incorporate curriculum changes in the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) and the revised document forms part of the CAPS orientation programme for teachers classroom?’, Preventing School Failure 45(1), 8–14. Teachers, therefore, need effective models that integrate variations for learning and teaching in the goals, methods, materials, and assessments in UDL implementation. Smart-boards, I-Pads and other tools can contribute to achieving educational outcomes, but low-tech options can achieve the similar Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE) Page | 94 considers all learners in its area as fully belonging to the school and all of its varied activities. and the way barriers to education for all learners can be overcome. http://bit.ly/OeUOSF. /Linearized 1 /Type /Catalog disabilities in US general education classrooms was the result (Fuchs & Fuchs 1994). 2.4 Debate Around Inclusive Education in South Africa 9 2.5 Key Barriers to Learning in South Africa 11 2.6 South African ... provides a summary and discussion of the findings and it explores the implications and limitations of the current study, as well as possible … teacher. effective transition from school to productive work. The necessity for making schools and classrooms inclusive in South Africa Inclusion has become a necessity in South Africa as South Africa has a history of violence and the education system has always been politicised and used by the ruling class as a way of marginalising and stigmatising various groups in society (De Lange, 1989). WP6 proposed a 20-year trajectory to implement inclusive education across South Africa. 0000027261 00000 n The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa Dana Donohue and Juan Bornman Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria, South Africa Juan.Bornman@up.ac.za In South Africa, up to 70% of children of … Occasional Paper, IDASA, Pretoria. South Africa has adopted an inclusive education policy in order to address barriers to learning in the education system. Simmons, D. & Kameenui, E. J., 1996, ‘A focus on curriculum design: When children fail’, Focus on Exceptional Children 28(7), pp. Vygotsky, L.S., 1962, Thought and Language, Hanfmann, E. & Vakar, G. Activities included participant discussion It has promoted and supported inclusive education practices in South Africa since 1995. 0000049746 00000 n Reynolds, M.C., Wang, M., & Walberg, H.J., 1987, ‘The necessary restructuring of special and regular education’, Exceptional Children 53, Education is one of the most topical issues in South Africa. general curriculum. Learners want and need to learn in ways that are accessible to them, and they want to have varied choices for By employing multiple means of representation (including multisensory www.cast.org) and the National UDL Center ( Rights of Persons with Disabilities’, Disability and Society 27(3), 385–398. CAST Inc., Wakefield, MA. & Rose, D., 2005, The future is in the margins: The role of technology and disability in educational reform, White Paper, American Its efforts are aimed at educators and professionals, giving them the knowledge and tools necessary to provide high-quality education for all students, regardless of disability or background. When implemented through planned curriculum design and the integrated use of supports, strategies and tools for teaching and learning, UDL holds great potential to The article ends with some thoughts about the implications of the issues discussed for research and teaching of inclusive education in South African higher education. The issue of curriculum differentiation is fundamental to the implementation of engagement, all those working with the learner can collaborate with a common understanding. rather than proposing specific learning programmes for different forms of diversity or disability. Successful implementation of UDL principles into practice does not require the use of specific technology CAST, 2011, Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0, Wakefield, MA: Center for Applied Special Technology Author, viewed 20 October 2011, Summarised, this policy has two major of Universal Design (Center for Universal Design 1997), the framework of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) supports these objectives, and is highly relevant for endobj • Session 2 focused on UDL in the classroom, and addressed ways to diversify the curriculum, models for UDL application, assistive technologies (definition, The Center for Applied Special Technology, and education officials in the provinces. context 26 . scope, selection, and applications), discussion of the technology continuum and issues regarding technology in the classroom. http://udl-irn.org/what-is-udl/. Brazil, N., Ford, A. 0000006943 00000 n involved in the system of education. Hall, T., Strangman, N. & Meyer, A., 2003, Differentiated instruction and implications for UDL implementation, Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing Challenges in the implementation of inclusive education. hope for more of these in the future’, and ‘course extremely relevant to current interests’. from The policy calls for a significant conceptual shift that is based on the following premises: • all children, youth and adults have the potential to learn, given the necessary support Donohue and Bornman (2014:1) regard current policy (White Paper 6) as Luftig, R. & Pavri, S., 2000, ‘The social face of inclusive education: are students with learning disabilities really included in the This paper discusses the challenges faced by rural learners in South Africa in the context of the world pandemic commonly known as COVID-19. Press, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, %%EOF 0000008647 00000 n /H [ 931 905 ] http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03173414. � T � . ] tries, some countries, including South Africa, are still seeking to achieve this goal (Nguyet & Ha, 2010). Department of Education, 2001, Education White Paper 6. CAST, 1998, Design Principles for Student Access. 0000050945 00000 n at many different levels (Box 1). The implementation of inclusive education in South Africa must be seen in the context of the country’s broader political, social, and cultural developments since 1994, particularly the systematic and progressive transformation of education in congruence with Constitutional values and ideals. Gustaffson, M. 2011. 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